Online Augmentation to
'Emerging Participatory Culture Practices:
Player-Created Tiers in Alternate Reality Games'
by Christy Dena

Main Page > Tiering: Levels > Tiering: Types > Resources: Sources > Resources: Types > Resources: Fictional > Summary > BIBLIOGRAPHY


Due to space constraints in the print essay, I didn't acknowledge the people I wanted to. I would firstly like to thank Henry Jenkins and Mark Deuze for initiating the issue and including my essay! Next I want to thank my reviewers: I implemented your recommendations and appreciated your kind words. A big thankyou to the members of the Georgetown Narrative listserv for your generous assistance in finding theories to capture dual address narratives. And lastly I want to thank ARG designers Evan Jones, Brooke Thompson, Jane McGonigal and 42 Entertainment. The publication of your ideas helped me confirm and develop the notion of player-created tiers and tiering in general.


Please note: this bibliography is for the websites and writing referenced in this online augmentation. Though there are some repeated references, this is not the bibliography from the essay in Convergence. And for those with a keen eye, you'll see I haven't finished putting ALL the websites I reference in this minisite yet. I'll get there.

42 Entertainment (n.d.) 'How we see things' 42 Entertainment, URL (consulted 25 January 2007):

ABC (2002) 'Push Nevada', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

ABC (2002) 'Push Nevada: The Game', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

ABC (2006) 'Inside the Experience', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

ARGNetcast (2007) 'Episode 42: Live from Pasadena!' 3 December 2007, URL (consulted 5 January 2008):

B, B. (2008) 'Crossing Over: How Alternate Reality Gaming Fulfilled a Childhood Dream' 9 January Chimaeralogue, URL (consulted 10 January 2008):

Bailey, R. (2001a) ‘The Plot’ Hair Thief, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Bailey, R. (2001b) ‘The Characters’ Hair Thief, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Brian. “Metacortex Puzzles”. 2003. metacortex.netninja. (26 Jan. 2007).

Brown, J. (2001) 'Paranoia for Fun and Profit' 10 Aug, URL (consulted 26 Jan. 2007):

Caillois, R. (2001) Man, Play, and Games, University of Illinois Press, Chicago.

CampfireNYC (2007) 'Campfire Casestuides: USA Networks Battle Over Promicin', URL (consulted 10 January 2008): USA Network:

Channel 4. Lost. 2006. (26 Jan. 2007).

ChessPieceFace (2002) 'Lockjaw Timeline' 15 March, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Clark, B. (2007) 'Based On Actual Events' 28 December, URL (consulted ):

Cloudmakers (2001) Cloudmakers listserv. 11 April, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Cloudmakers (2001), URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Deaddrop (n.d.), URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Dennis (2007) 'Cloverfield Clues', URL (consulted 04 January 2008):

Enigma, B. (2003) 'Story So Far', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Fabulich, D. and Phillips, A. (2001) ‘The Journey’,, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Fireflies (2004) Fireflies, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Gaudiosi, J. (2006) 'The Hollywood Byte #16: ABC Finds New Lost Game' 27 April Yahoo!Games, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Gibson, G. (2006) 'Comment on Deep Water' 26 Jan Deus Ex Machinatio, URL (consulted 21 January 2008):

GMD Studios (2007) 'Whiteboard' 1 November 2007, URL (consulted 10 January 2008):

Hon, D. (2001) ‘The Trail v9.0.’ 25 July, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Hon, A. (2001a) ‘The Guide X: The Tale of the A.I. Trail – 23rd May Onwards’, 2 September, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Hon, A. (2001b) ‘META: The Guide: A Walkthrough to the Game’ 19 April Cloudmakers – Moderated, URL (consulted 26 January 2007): message/34

Hon, A. (2001c) ‘Editorials: The Hitch Hiker’s Guide to the Game’ 14 May, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Hon, A. (2001d) ‘The Guide X: The Tale of the A.I. Trail’ 2 September, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Immersion Unlimited (n.d.) 'Immersion Unlimited', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Jawbreakers (2002) 'Jawbreakers' 9 Feburary Yahoo! Groups Jawbreak, URL (26 January 2007):

Jenkins, J. (2006) Convergence Culturre: Where Old and New Media Collide, New York University Press, New York.

Jones, E. (2007a) 'Re: copy of ppt.' 29 January 2007 Personal Email

Jones, E. and Christy Dena (2007b) 'Ep 102: Interview with Evan Jones' 23 October 2007, URL (consulted 24 October 2007):

Konamouse (2007) Post in 'Chaotic Fiction' 20 July, URL (consulted 15 August 2007):

Lachonis, J. (2007) 'BuddyTV Interviews LOST's Damon Lindelof and Carlton Cuse - and gets Answers!' 7 March, URL (consulted 27 March 2007):

Lesnick, S. and Matt Reeves (2007) 'IESB Exclusive Interview: Cloverfield Director Matt Reeves!' 14 December IESB.Net, URL (17 January 2008):

Live Planet (2007) 'Projects', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Live Planet (2002) 'Enoch Push Dialect listserv' Yahoo!Groups, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Luke (2006) Post in 'ReGenesis Series 2' 27 Febuary, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

McGonigal, J. (2003a) ‘“This Is Not a Game”: Immersive Aesthetics and Collective Play’, paper presented at MelbourneDAC: The 5th International Digital Arts and Culture Conference, Melbourne, 19–23 May.

McGonigal, J. (2003b) ‘A Real Little Game: The Performance of Belief in Pervasive Play’, paper presented at Digital Games Research Association ‘Level Up’ Conference, The Netherlands, 4–6 November.

McGonigal, J. (2005) ‘I Love Bees: A Buzz Story’, paper presented at AD: TECH, San Francisco, 25–7 April.

McGonigal, J.E. (2006) This Might Be a Game: Ubiquitous Play and Performance at the Turn of the Twenty- First Century, PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

McKinney-Silver. “Art of the H3ist: An Audi Project.” (2005), URL (26 Jan. 2007):

Metaurchins (2006) Project Mu Archives. OR: Unfiction Inc.

Miller, C.H. (2005) Digital Storytelling: A Creator's Guide to Interactive Entertainment, Focal Press, Massachusetts

Mind Candy Design (n.d.a) ‘Perplex City Story So Far’,, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Mind Candy Design (n.d.b) ‘Perplex City Leaderboard’,, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Mind Candy Design (n.d.c) ‘Perplex City Walkthrough’,, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Mittell, J. (2006) 'Lost in an Alternate Reality', Flow, Vol 4, Issue 7, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

The Namaste (2006) 'Lost Game: The Namastae' 27 April 2006 Yahoo! Groups, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

NBC (2007a) 'Season 1 Walk-Through', URL (consulted 14 September 2007):

NBC (2007b) 'Season 2 Walk-Through', URL (consulted 27 October 2007):

Örnebring, H. (2007) 'Alternate Reality Gaming and Convergence Culture: The Case of Alias', International Journal of Cultural Studies, 10, pp. 445-462.

Peters, S. (aka vpisteve) (2004) ‘Ilovebees Halo 2 Audio File Repository' Alternate Reality Gaming Network, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Peters, C. (2008) 'Comment 133 on Launching Strategy: Birthing Your Alterante Reality in an ARG Community' 20 January, URL (consulted 20 January 2008):

Perplex City wiki (2005), URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Perplexorium (2006) URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Phillips, A. (2006) 'Deep Water' 26 January Deus Ex, URL (21 January 2008):

Phillips, A. and Adam Martin (2006b) ‘Business Models’, in Adam Martin and Tom Chatfield (eds) 2006 Alternate Reality Game White Paper: 49-57.

Rowan (2004) 'The Haunted Apiary Guide', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Sapagoo (2004) ‘Quickphones’ 20 September, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Senderhauf, M. (aka varin) (n.d.) 'Chasing the Wish Guide', URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Stacey, S. (aka SpaceBass) (2002) LockJaw Trail' 1 May, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Stacey, S. (aka SpaceBass) (2006) 'UnDefining ARG' 10 Nov, URL (consulted 12 Dec 2006):

Szulborski, D. (2005a) Through the Rabbit Hole: A Beginner’s Guide to Playing Alternate Reality Games, US: New Fiction Publishing.

Terdiman, D. (2006) 'Newsmaker: Drawing on the Wii, Reality TV' 28 December, URL (26 January 2007):

The Bruce (2004) ‘Plot Timeline’ the, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

The Bruce (2006) The Ocular Effect ARG Wiki 18 July, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Thompson, B. (2004) ‘I Love Bees Quickstart Guide’, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Thompson, B. (2006a) ‘ARG & Stats’, personal email to Christy Dena, Received March 5th, 2006.

Thompson, B. (2006b) ‘Understanding your Audience’, in Adam Martin and Tom Chatfield (eds) 2006 Alternate Reality Game White Paper: 43–7. [Note: Thompson was incorrectly credited as an editor of the white paper and so has not been credited as such here.]

Thompson, B. (2007) “Re: [arg_discuss] PM-created listservs”. 30 Jan. 2007. ARG_Discuss listserv. (30 Jan. 2007).

Unfiction (n.d.) ‘Online Tools’ unfiction, URL (consulted 26 January 2007): resource/otools/

unforums. 2001. (26 Jan. 2007).

unforum members. (2004) 'The Haunted Apiary (Let Op!)' unforums, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Varela, D. (2007) 'Alternate Reality Games: Perplex City', Scriptwriter Magazine, issue 36, Sept.

Waite, J. (2006) 'ReGenesis - Season Two to Debut' 19 March, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Xenophile Media (2006) ‘ReGenesis Discussion’, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Xenophile Media (2006) 'Science Sucks', URL (consulted 14 September 2006): [Accessible by players during gameplay only]

Yanka (n.d.) ‘Perplex City Story Timeline’, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Yanka (n.d.) ‘Characters’, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Yanka (n.d.) ‘Characters’, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):

Yahoo!7. Lost Ninja. 2006. (26 Jan. 2007).

Zalk, B. (2006) Steeple Media, URL (consulted 26 January 2007):


Created: 24 Sep, 2007
Last Updated: 26 Jan, 2008
Author: Christy Dena